Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Physics of Sound essays

The Physics of Sound essays Sound surrounds us at all times. The ring of an alarm clock or the whistle of birds may wake us up in the morning. Through out the day, we hear a variety of sounds; for instance, the banging of pots and pans, the roar of traffic, and the voices of people. When we fall asleep at night, we might listen to the sounds of frogs croaking or the wind whistling. All sounds have one thing in common. This being that the vibrations of an object makes every sound. When an object vibrates, it causes the air around it to vibrate. The vibrations in the air travel out from all directions of the object. They then reach our ears, and the brain reads them as sounds. Many sounds we hear travel through the air; however, they can also travel through solid objects like the earth. Our voice is made in the larynx, which is a part of the throat. Two small pieces of tissue are spread across the larynx. These pieces, called vocal chords, make the opening smaller. Air from he lungs quickly passes trough the tightened chords, causing them to vibrate. The vibrations make the sound of the voice. The tighter the chords are, the faster the vibrations and the higher the resulting sound. If a rock is thrown onto a still pond, several waves travel out from the place where the rock hit the surface. Likewise, sound moves in waves through the air or some other medium. The understanding that sound travels in the form of waves may have originated with the artist Leonardo Da Vinci in 1500. Generally, waves can be spread transversely or longitudinally. In both cases, only the energy of wave motion is spread through medium. No portion of the medium actually moves very far. As the waves caused by the moving object travel outward, they are carried by a medium. This movement causes compression. As the movements move backward it is called rarefractions. Sound requires a medium to travel; therefore, it cannot travel in space, which is a vacuum with no medium. ...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Types of Chemical Reactions (With Examples)

Types of Chemical Reactions (With Examples) A chemical reaction is a process generally characterized by a chemical change in which the starting materials (reactants) are different from the products. Chemical reactions tend to involve the motion of electrons, leading to the formation and breaking of chemical bonds. There are several different types of chemical reactions and more than one way of classifying them. Here are some common reaction types:   Oxidation-Reduction or Redox Reaction In a redox reaction, the oxidation numbers of atoms are changed. Redox reactions may involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species.The reaction that occurs when In which I2 is reduced to I- and S2O32- (thiosulfate anion) is oxidized to S4O62- provides an example of a redox reaction:2 S2O32−(aq) I2(aq) → S4O62−(aq) 2 I−(aq) Direct Combination or Synthesis Reaction In a synthesis reaction, two or more chemical species combine to form a more complex product.A B → ABThe combination of iron and sulfur to form iron (II) sulfide is an example of a synthesis reaction:8 Fe S8 → 8 FeS Chemical Decomposition or Analysis Reaction In a decomposition reaction, a compound is broken into smaller chemical species.AB → A BThe electrolysis of water into oxygen and hydrogen gas is an example of a decomposition reaction:2 H2O → 2 H2 O2 Single Displacement or Substitution Reaction A substitution or single displacement reaction is characterized by one element being displaced from a compound by another element.A BC → AC BAn example of a substitution reaction occurs when zinc combines with hydrochloric acid. The zinc replaces the hydrogen:Zn 2 HCl → ZnCl2 H2 Metathesis or Double Displacement Reaction In a double displacement or metathesis reaction two compounds exchange bonds or ions in order to form different compounds.AB CD → AD CBAn example of a double displacement reaction occurs between sodium chloride and silver nitrate to form sodium nitrate and silver chloride.NaCl(aq) AgNO3(aq) → NaNO3(aq) AgCl(s) Acid-Base Reaction An acid-base reaction is a type of double displacement reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. The H ion in the acid reacts with the OH- ion in the base to form water and an ionic salt:HA BOH → H2O BAThe reaction between hydrobromic acid (HBr) and sodium hydroxide is an example of an acid-base reaction:HBr NaOH → NaBr H2O Combustion A combustion reaction is a type of redox reaction in which a combustible material combines with an oxidizer to form oxidized products and generate heat (exothermic reaction). Usually, in a combustion reaction oxygen combines with another compound to form carbon dioxide and water. An example of a combustion reaction is the burning of naphthalene:C10H8 12 O2 → 10 CO2 4 H2O Isomerization In an isomerization reaction, the structural arrangement of a compound is changed but its net atomic composition remains the same. Hydrolysis Reaction A hydrolysis reaction involves water. The general form for a hydrolysis reaction is:X-(aq) H2O(l) ↔  HX(aq) OH-(aq) The Main Reaction Types There are hundreds or even thousands of types of chemical reactions! If you are asked to name the main 4, 5 or 6 types of  chemical reactions, here is how they are  categorized. The main four types of reactions are direct combination, analysis reaction, single displacement, and double displacement. If youre asked the five main types of reactions, it is these four and then either acid-base or redox (depending who you ask). Keep in mind, a specific chemical reaction may fall into more than one category.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Value-added Model (VAM) of Teaching Evaluations and Its Implications Research Paper

Value-added Model (VAM) of Teaching Evaluations and Its Implications - Research Paper Example In not more than a decade, there has been a heated debate about the best value-added model of teaching. However, as much as this debate is vital in the effort to offer quality education, less people have an idea of what it entails. The key players in this discussion are people working in the education sector and who in one way or another tend to benefit or lose from value-added teacher evaluation (Early, Imig & Michelli, 2010). With these deliberations, it would be necessary first to understand what value-added model of teaching evaluations entails. The context of value- added model in teaching evaluations The most and obvious meaning of value-added model of teaching is a method of teacher evaluation that gives an account of teacher’s contribution in terms of evaluating current school year test performances of students to performances of the same students in the previous year (Raudenbush, 2004). This also includes comparison of performances of other students in the same level. Value added model also tends to evaluate each teacher’s performance in comparison with performances of other teachers. Nevertheless, this model has not come without criticism. Opponents of this model argue that the use of tests to measure teachers contribution is not scientific and has not been proved by and scientific study (Raudenbush, 2004). Additionally, they argue that some students results and performances are beyond teacher’s reach since some of the factors that determine students performance include behaviors of the students, and, which they claim most of these behaviors are acquired outside tutoring (Cater, 2004). However, it is paramount to focus on issues other than generalizing notions. For example, it is of considerable importance to articulate on possible likelihood of using VAM. Studies have indicated that use of this model will create accountability to teachers and administrators (Schwab, 1991). They tend to shape their behaviors, and work hard to prod ucing top scores in their subjects. The overall intention of this model is to encourage teachers work extra harder by incorporating different teaching strategies to improve achievement of both the students and the school (Nolan & Hoover, 2010). Value added results may also be helpful to teachers in terms of self improvement and setting target (Lissitz, 2005). It has also been argued that results obtained from value- added can be used at school level to improve on different subjects and group of students depending on the level of weakness or strength (Ballou, Sanders & Wright, 2004). With results of value- added from different schools, an evaluation can be done to come up with the best teaching strategy to be adopted in order to streamline all schools performance. It has also been argued that value-added results can help create projections of the level of school performance, which can be used to determine required resources, decision making and planning (Xiaoxia, Darling-Hammond, Hae rtel, & Ewart, 2010). In the context of accountability, value-added model is argued to act as an awakening call for schools in order for them to improve on weak areas to avoid sanctions (Lissitz, 2005). The model also ensures that schools that perform well are rewarded in order to keep the fire burning. The tax money paid to run the school is required to be utilized accordingly. Therefore, schools that incorporate value-added

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Strategic Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Strategic Marketing - Essay Example However it is accomplished, the satisfaction of all physical distribution needs in the marketing channel must be accomplished for the rest of the channel to function successfully. The selection and use of physical distribution facilitating agencies is quite different than the selection and use of facilitating agencies for other channel services. In most cases other than for physical distribution, the facilitating agency will be employed and paid for by whichever channel member needs it. For physical distribution, however, the manufacturer or marketer will normally locate, select, and pay for the services of agencies involved in physical distribution (McCalley, 1992, p. 43). Channel strategy literature informs us about channel-facilitating agencies that can provide a variety of services for the manufacturer or marketer of products. Marketing services in this context needed depend on what can be expected from the channel members and the capabilities of the manufacturer. In this case not only strategies are required but other governance and management issues are also of significance that are most commonly the selected marketing channel members as they have the ability to ship and store products at the wholesale or retail levels in the market. These are actually the intermediaries that provide all or most of the physical distribution functions. In conditions where the channel members are unable to provide the needed services, the manufacturer has the option of providing the services itself or employing facilitating agencies to perform them. Therefore the need for all or some of these services or for other physical distribution services depends on manufactu rers’ ability to themselves satisfy the key physical distribution requirements of the marketing channel to be managed. Let us review that in order to help us in determining what is

Friday, January 24, 2020

Hyperinflation in Germany during the Early 1920s Essay -- Argumentati

Hyperinflation in Germany during the Early 1920's Imagine that after a lifelong of hard work and saving, you find that your lifesavings will not buy more than one cup of coffee. For a majority of the middle class living in Germany during the early 1920’s this was precisely their experience. Of course, not all suffered during this period of hyperinflation. Those who owed money encouraged their government’s expansionary monetary policies, knowing the resulting inflation would effectively cancel their debt. In fact, it was the Reich itself who had the most to gain from inflation, for it was the biggest debtor of them all. In this paper I will show that the German Government did have other options to finance its expenditures aside from simply printing money, but instead decided to implement inflation-causing policies to finance its own debt. I am not saying that the German Government is entirely responsible for the large extent of the inflation, but it certainly did start the ball rolling. Generally, once inflation starts, it is very hard to stop. It is like a domino effect that continues at faster and faster rates. The German Government should have thought of the future consequences and reversed its inflationary policies immediately after the war ended, as the other belligerent countries did. It is true that none of the other countries fared well during this interwar period, but at least citizens of other countries didn’t find their lifesavings to be utterly worthless. The inflation problem actually began at the beginning of World War I. It was then that the German Government started to accumulate debt and to increase the money supply. Because they thought they would win the war and intended to force the... ...e birth of the Euro), a main priority for the German Central Bank had been to keep inflation to a minimum. Works Cited: 1) Bartlet, Bruce. â€Å"The Great German Inflation.† Liberty Haven. 1975. http://www.libertyhaven.com/countriesandregions/germany/greatgermaninf.html (3 Dec 2002). 2) Goodman, George. â€Å"The German Hyperinflation, 1923.† Commanding Heights. 1981. http://www.newshour.org/wgbh/commandingheights/shared/minitext/ess_germanhyp erinflation.html (3 Dec 2002). 3) Hardach, Karl. The Political Economy of Germany in the Twentieth Century. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1980. (16-29) 4) Sommariva, Andrea. German Macroeconomic History, 1880-1979. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987. (121-135) 5) Stolper, Gustav. The German Economy: 1870 to the Present. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World Inc., 1967. (74-93)

Thursday, January 16, 2020

U.S. Civil Rights Milestones of the Early Twentieth Century

It would be almost impossible to discuss the issue of civil rights in the U.S. without mentioning Martin Luther King. He was the undeniable leader and hero of the American Civil Rights Movement of the twentieth century. He is widely recognized for his valiant efforts to advance civil rights for African Americans in the U.S. in the late 1950's and 60's. Countless streets and buildings carry his name and the country celebrates a national holiday on his birthday in January. He was the founder and first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The SCLC organized non-violent protests throughout the South. However, many people in the U.S. are not aware of any of the events in the Civil Rights Movement that took place before Dr. King's leadership. The three major milestones that set the stage for Martin Luther King and the SCLC to advance the cause of U.S. civil rights were the integration of the military, the Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education decision, and the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The first noteworthy event of the twentieth century that advanced the cause of civil rights was executive order 9981. President Truman became enlightened about the plight of African Americans when he met with civil rights activists in the White House in 1946. After establishing a committee to recommend preventive measures to fight discrimination, Truman signed executive order 9981 that called for the integration of the military (Executive Order 9981). However, it was not fully enforced until the U.S. became involved in the Korean War. A legal decision that had a lasting impact on civil rights was the U.S. Supreme Court decision, Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education handed down in 1955. It established that public schools should not be segregated. Though it was challenged by several southern states for many years, all the states eventually followed it (Brown v. Board of Education).The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a protest orchestrated by Dr. King. Most people remember Rosa Parks as the brave woman who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man. Her arrest led to a boycott of the buses in Montgomery, Alabama for over a year. The protest was successful and led to Martin Luther King's presidency of the SCLC. As the president of the SCLC, he led many protests and marches and gave countless memorable speeches to champion civil rights (Montgomery Bus Boycott). Before MLK assumed a leadership role in the U.S. Civil Rights Movement through his presidency of the SCLC, other key events took place to pave the way for the fight for equality. Truman's Executive Order 9981 in 1948 eventually led to complete racial integration in the military. Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education legally ended public school segregation, and the Montgomery Bus Boycott resulted in the end of illegal desegregation on public transportation. These historic events preceded Dr. King's numerous achievements and helped energize the U.S. Civil Rights Movement. Works Citedâ€Å"Brown v. Board of Education.†Ã‚  History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2009, www.history.com/.â€Å"Executive Order 9981.†Ã‚  Encyclopedia.com, Encyclopedia.com, 2016, www.encyclopedia.com/.â€Å"Montgomery Bus Boycott.†Ã‚  Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica, Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica, Inc., 2018, www.britannica.com/.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Journey Essay - 1466 Words

The Journey is the reward: Discuss the truth of this statement using the core text, with one piece of text from the BOS booklet together with two pieces of related material. All issues are to speak in relation to Sally Morgans inner journey. The inner journey is a concept that has always been debated, and so has its meaning. The word ‘inner has the alternative meaning of personal. Moreover, the word journey has an alternative meaning of movement. So, the concept of the inner journey, customarily, has the meaning of a personal movement. Inner journeys have often been described as the metaphor behind a physical journey. The statement ‘Journey is the reward and the idea of a personal movement are depicted in the texts, My Place by†¦show more content†¦Throughout the story the respondent is left wondering the reason behind the familys silence towards each other. This statement only reinforces the idea that the core text, My Place, clearly depicts how the journey is the reward. Sally Morgan uses a wide range of different techniques to convey her physical and internal movement to disclose her family heritage and her own identity. The book itself is structured in a completely original format. Sally has managed to make her story stand out by separating each individual story, thus, the book is separated into her own story, her Uncle Arthurs story, her mothers story and finally, her grandmothers story. It must be noted that inner journeys are plagued with choices, and this is a truth and reality that no one can escape. As Robert Frost says in ‘The Road Not Taken, ‘Two roads diverged in a yellow wood. In Sallys quest for information, she met a lady called ‘Elsie who gave her a great depth and insight into her Grandmother and the past. In Sallys mind, her journey was definitely rewarded and this made her feel ‘full inside. Sallys mother, Gladys, had also found an new sense of fulfillment which completed her as a whole, because she was previously only ‘half a person. For Sally, it was her determination and ‘stubborn nature which meant that she was rewarded, because in her heart she realized that unless the family went on such an epic journey ‘we never would have known our place.Show MoreRelatedEssay on Anaylysis of Journey to the West1379 Words   |  6 Pagesidea of a ‘journey’ apply to Tripitaka’s pilgrimage? If so, how? The idea of embarking on journeys has stood the test of time - early man explored uncharted territories, while modern citizens jump at the chance to have an overseas experience. Are we truly concerned with materialistic experiences, or are we seeking to expand our horizons ? The term pilgrimage itself suggests a journey to a geographical location of spiritual importance. 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